Marco jurídico - resumen
The National Policy on Climate Change, established in 2009, is Brazil’s most significant climate change law. The policy sets out general guidelines for reducing emissions across different sectors in Brazil and sets a future emission reduction target for Brazil. The National Policy has also established a series of mechanisms and instruments including the National Plan on Climate Change, the Plan for Prevention and Control of Deforestation in the Amazon, the Plan for Prevention and Control of Deforestation in Cerrado and other plans for the agricultural sector, the energy sector and the metallurgical sector (e.g. replacing coal with deforestation from planted forests). Law Project 195/2011 which supersedes Law Project 5.586/2009 is currently being discussed at the Deputy House and is the only such law that aims to institute a national system for REDD.
At the international level Brazil is a Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) and it engages with the United Nations Forum on Forests (UNFF). Brazil has played a leading role in many conventions relating to climate and biodiversity, for example by setting voluntary targets to reduce emissions under the UNFCCC. In addition Brazil has signed and ratified the Kyoto Protocol and the Nagoya Protocol and adopted a number of declarations and agreements relating to climate change and sustainable development e.g. the Millennium Development Goals, Agenda 21, the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the Statement of principles for the Sustainable Management of Forests, and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP).